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Research Guides

APA Style Guide: In-Text Citations

APA style according to the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

In-Text Citations (also called Parenthetical References)

Use author-date method in parenthetical references that guide the reader to the source in your references list. [See 6.11-6.21, pp. 174-79 for details and exceptions.]

One Author

This point has already been argued (Tannen, 1990).  OR  Tannen (1990) has argued this point...

The citation for this example in the reference list is:

Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand: Women and men in conversation. New York, NY: Morrow.

Citing Specific Examples from a Source

If the passage in your paper refers to a quote, statistic, chart, or similar specific example from a source, indicate the page (or chapter, figure, etc.) where the example is found.

(Tannen, 1990, p. 62).

Two Authors

Use both names every time cited:

(Baker & Lightfoot, 1993)  OR   Baker and Lightfoot (1993) also reported that...

Three to five Authors

Include surnames of all authors in the first citation in your text, then use first author et al. in subsequent references:

Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found...    [1st citation in text]
Further more (Kisangu et al., 2007)    [Subsequent citations]

Six or more authors

Use the first author and et al.

(Wijga et al., 2009)  OR  The study by Wijga, et al. (2009) found that...

 

Works without authors

Use a short form of the title that starts the citation entry on the References page.

Scientists report that average temperatures in Antarctica are changing rapidly ("Cooling," 2008).

Two or more works by the same author

Use the date to guide your reader to the proper reference in your works cited list.

Morrison's early work (1977)...
Her later novel... (Morrison, 1987).

On the references page, arrange works by the same single author by year of publication.

References

Cooling Trend in Antarctica. (2008). Futurist 36(3):15-20. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

Morrison, T. (1977). Song of Solomon. New York, NY: Knopf, 1977.

Morrison, T. (1987). Beloved: A novel. New York, NY: Random, 1987.

Personal Communication (in person & electronic)

First initial and last name of interviewee, the words "personal communication", and interview date.

T. K. Lutes indicated that... (personal communication, April 18, 2014)
     OR
(T. K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2014)

Do not include personal communication on References Page.

In-Text Citatiions

In-Text Citations (also called Parenthetical References)

Use author-date method in parenthetical references that guide the reader to the source in your references list. [See 6.11-6.21, pp. 174-79 for details and exceptions.]

One Author

This point has already been argued (Tannen, 1990).  OR  Tannen (1990) has argued this point...

The citation for this example in the reference list is:

Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand: Women and men in conversation. New York, NY: Morrow.

Citing Specific Examples from a Source

If the passage in your paper refers to a quote, statistic, chart, or similar specific example from a source, indicate the page (or chapter, figure, etc.) where the example is found.

(Tannen, 1990, p. 62).

 

Two Authors

Use both names every time cited:

(Baker & Lightfoot, 1993)  OR   Baker and Lightfoot (1993) also reported that...

 

Three to five Authors

Include surnames of all authors in the first citation in your text, then use first author et al. in subsequent references:

Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found...    [1st citation in text]
Further more (Kisangu et al., 2007)    [Subsequent citations]

 

Six or more authors

Use the first author and et al.

(Wijga et al., 2009)  OR  The study by Wijga, et al. (2009) found that...

 

Works without authors

Use a short form of the title that starts the citation entry on the References page.

Scientists report that average temperatures in Antarctica are changing rapidly ("Cooling," 2008).

 

Two or more works by the same author

Use the date to guide your reader to the proper reference in your works cited list.

Morrison's early work (1977)...
Her later novel... (Morrison, 1987).

On the references page, arrange works by the same single author by year of publication.

References

Cooling Trend in Antarctica. (2008). Futurist 36(3):15-20. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

Morrison, T. (1977). Song of Solomon. New York, NY: Knopf, 1977.

Morrison, T. (1987). Beloved: A novel. New York, NY: Random, 1987.

 

Personal Communication (in person & electronic)

First initial and last name of interviewee, the words "personal communication", and interview date.

T. K. Lutes indicated that... (personal communication, April 18, 2014)
     OR
(T. K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2014)

Do not include personal communication on References Page.