Use author-date method in parenthetical references that guide the reader to the source in your references list. [See 6.11-6.21, pp. 174-79 for details and exceptions.]
This point has already been argued (Tannen, 1990). OR Tannen (1990) has argued this point...
The citation for this example in the reference list is:
Tannen, D. (1990). You just don't understand: Women and men in conversation. New York, NY: Morrow.
Citing Specific Examples from a Source
If the passage in your paper refers to a quote, statistic, chart, or similar specific example from a source, indicate the page (or chapter, figure, etc.) where the example is found.
(Tannen, 1990, p. 62).
Use both names every time cited:
(Baker & Lightfoot, 1993) OR Baker and Lightfoot (1993) also reported that...
Use the first author and et al.
(Wijga et al., 2009) OR The study by Wijga, et al. (2009) found that...
Use a short form of the title that starts the citation entry on the References page.
Scientists report that average temperatures in Antarctica are changing rapidly ("Cooling," 2008).
Use the date to guide your reader to the proper reference in your works cited list.
Morrison's early work (1977)...
Her later novel... (Morrison, 1987).
On the references page, arrange works by the same single author by year of publication.
Cooling trend in Antarctica. (2002, May 1). The Futurist, 36(3), 15-20.
Morrison, T. (1977). Song of Solomon. Knopf.
Morrison, T. (1987). Beloved: A novel. Random.
First initial and last name of interviewee, the words "personal communication", and interview date.
T. K. Lutes indicated that... (personal communication, April 18, 2014)
(T. K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2014)
Do not include personal communication on References Page.